SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
The Company’s cash consists of cash maintained in checking and interest-bearing accounts. The Company accounts for financial instruments with original maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase as cash equivalents. The Company held no cash equivalents as of December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are initially recognized at acquisition cost or manufacturing cost, including any costs directly attributable to bringing the assets to the location and condition necessary for them to be capable of operating in the manner intended by the Company’s management. Property, plant and equipment are subsequently measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses.
Depreciation is recognized on a straight-line basis to write down the cost less estimated residual value of computer equipment and furniture and fixtures. The following useful lives are applied:
SCHEDULE OF ESTIMATED RESIDUAL VALUE OF COMPUTER EQUIPMENT AND FURNITURE AND FIXTURES
Gains or losses arising on the disposal of property, plant and equipment are determined as the difference between the disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the assets and are recognized in profit or loss within other income or other expenses.
Construction in progress includes construction progress payments, deposits, engineering costs, interest expense for debt financing on long-term construction projects and other costs directly related to the construction of the facilities. Expenditures are capitalized during the construction period and construction in progress is transferred to the relevant class of property and equipment when the assets are available for use, at which point the depreciation of the asset commences.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. In order to determine if assets have been impaired, assets are grouped and tested at the lowest level for which identifiable independent cash flows are available (“asset group”). An impairment loss is recognized when the sum of projected undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying value of the asset group. The measurement of the impairment loss to be recognized is based on the difference between the fair value and the carrying value of the asset group. Fair value can be determined using a market approach, income approach or cost approach. The reversal of impairment losses is prohibited.
Deferred IPO Costs
Deferred IPO costs represent legal, accounting and other direct costs related to the Company’s efforts to raise capital through an initial public offering of the Company’s common stock (“IPO”). There were no IPO costs incurred prior to 2020. The Company completed the IPO in July 2021 and accordingly all deferred IPO costs, except for the portion allocated to warrant liability, were reclassified to additional paid-in capital as a reduction of the IPO proceeds. The portion allocated to warrant liability was expensed in the statement of comprehensive loss.
The Company has not recorded any revenues since its inception. However, in the future, the Company expects to generate returns from any or all the revenue sources below from its customers:
On January 1, 2018, the Company early adopted ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers and all related amendments (“ASC 606” or “the new revenue standard”). ASC 606 is a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The new revenue standard is based on the principle that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. To achieve this core principle, ASC 606 provides that an entity should apply the following steps: (1) identify the contract(s) with a customer, (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (3) determine the transaction price, (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract and (5) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. The new revenue standard also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, and costs to obtain or fulfill contracts. The Company will apply ASC 606 prospectively to all contracts.
The Company presents basic and diluted loss per share data for its common shares. Basic loss per common share is calculated by dividing the profit or loss attributable to common shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the year. Diluted loss per common share is calculated by adjusting the weighted average number of common shares outstanding to assume conversion of all potentially dilutive share equivalents, such as stock options and warrants and assumes the receipt of proceeds upon exercise of the dilutive securities to determine the number of shares assumed to be purchased at the average market price during the year. Diluted net loss attributable to common shareholders per share does not differ from basic net loss attributable to common shareholders per share for the years ended December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, since the effect of the Company’s stock options and warrants are anti-dilutive.
Research and Development
Expenditure on research and development activities, undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding, is recognized as expense when incurred.
Foreign Currency Transactions
The financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries whose functional currencies are the local currencies are translated into U.S. dollars for consolidation as follows: assets and liabilities at the exchange rate as of the balance sheet date, shareholders’ equity at the historical rates of exchange, and income and expense amounts at the average exchange rate for the period. Translation adjustments resulting from the translation of the subsidiaries’ accounts are included in “Accumulated other comprehensive income” as equity in the consolidated balance sheets. Transactions denominated in currencies other than the applicable functional currency are converted to the functional currency at the exchange rate on the transaction date. At period end, monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured to the reporting currency using exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured at historical exchange rates. Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency transactions are included within non-operating expenses.
Fair value of Financial Instruments
The fair value of the Company’s accounts receivable, accounts payable and other current liabilities approximate their carrying amounts due to the relative short maturities of these items.
As part of the issuance of debentures on March 24, 2021, the Company issued warrants having strike price denominated in U.S. Dollars. This creates an obligation to issue shares for a price that is not denominated in the Company’s functional currency and renders the warrants not indexed to the Company’s stock, and therefore, must be classified as a derivative liability and measured at fair value. On the same basis, the Series A Warrants and the representative warrants issued as part of the IPO are also classified as a derivative liability and measured at fair value.
The fair value of the Company’s warrants is determined in accordance with FASB ASC 820, “Fair Value Measurement,” which establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the assumptions (inputs) to valuation techniques used to price assets or liabilities that are measured at fair value. The hierarchy, as defined below, gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs. The guidance for fair value measurements requires that assets and liabilities measured at fair value be classified and disclosed in one of the following categories:
As of December 31, 2021, the Company’s warrant liability related to IPO warrants and representative’s warrant amounting to $1,418,964 (December 31, 2020 - $) is reported at fair value and categorized as Level 1 inputs. Whereas, the fair value of warrant liability related to Bridge warrants that were issued and exercised during the year was categorized as level 3 inputs. (See Note 9 and Note 11)
The Company has reclassified certain amounts in the 2020 consolidated financial statements to comply with the 2021 presentation.
Current tax expense is the expected tax payable on the taxable income for the period, using tax rates enacted at period-end.
Deferred tax assets, including those arising from tax loss carryforwards, requires management to assess the likelihood that the Company will generate sufficient taxable earnings in future periods in order to utilize recognized deferred tax assets. Assumptions about the generation of future taxable profits depend on management’s estimates of future cash flows. In addition, future changes in tax laws could limit the ability of the Company to obtain tax deductions in future periods. To the extent that future cash flows and taxable income differ significantly from estimates, the ability of the Company to realize the net deferred tax assets recorded at the reporting date could be impacted.
The Company operates in various tax jurisdictions and is subject to audit by various tax authorities.
The Company records uncertain tax positions based on a two-step process whereby (1) a determination is made as to whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained based on the technical merits of the position and (2) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold the Company recognizes the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties accrued on any unrecognized tax benefits as a component of income tax expense. Significant judgment is required in the identification of uncertain tax positions and in the estimation of penalties and interest on uncertain tax positions.
There were no material uncertain tax positions as of December 31, 2021 and 2020.
The Company generally uses the straight-line method to allocate compensation cost to reporting periods over each optionee’s requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period, and estimates the fair value of stock-based awards to employees and directors using the Black-Scholes option-valuation model (the “Black-Scholes model”). The Black-Scholes model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including volatility, the expected term and the fair value of the underlying common shares on the date of grant, among other inputs. The Company recognizes any forfeitures as they occur.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Start-ups Act of 2012, (the “JOBS Act”). Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, for complying with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. In other words, an emerging growth company can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies.
Effective January 1, 2021, the Company adopted ASU 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes.” ASU 2019-12 simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing exceptions within the general principles of Topic 740 regarding the calculation of deferred tax liabilities, the incremental approach for intra-period tax allocation, and calculating income taxes in an interim period. In addition, the ASU adds clarifications to the accounting for franchise tax (or similar tax). which is partially based on income, evaluating tax basis of goodwill recognized from a business combination, and reflecting the effect of any enacted changes in tax laws or rates in the annual effective tax rate computation in the interim period that includes the enactment date. The adoption of this new guidance did not have a material impact to these financial statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06 “Debt – Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity” (“ASU 2020-06”). The intention of ASU 2020-06 is to address the complexities in accounting for certain financial instruments with a debt and equity component. Under ASU 2020-06, the number of accounting models for convertible notes will be reduced and entities that issue convertible debt will be required to use the if-converted method for the computation of diluted “Earnings per share” under ASC 260. ASC 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021 and may be adopted through either a modified retrospective method of transition or a fully retrospective method of transition. We are currently assessing the impact this guidance will have on our financial statements.
In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-04 - Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt - Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options (a consensus of the FASB Emerging Issues Task Force). ASU 2021-04 clarifies and reduces diversity in an issuer’s accounting for modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options that remain equity classified after modification or exchange. Modifications and exchanges should be treated as an exchange of the original instrument for a new instrument. The amendment requires entities to measure the effect as the difference between the fair value of the modified or exchanged written call option and the fair value of that written call option immediately before it is modified or exchanged if the modification or the exchange that is a part of or directly related to a modification or an exchange of an existing debt instrument or line-of-credit or revolving-debt arrangements.
For all other modifications or exchanges, the effect should be measured as the excess, if any, of the fair value of the modified or exchanged written call option over the fair value of that written call option immediately before it is modified or exchanged for all other modifications or exchanges. The amendments require entities to recognize the effect on the basis of the substance of the transaction, in the same manner as if cash had been paid as consideration. The amendments also require entities to recognize the effect in accordance with the guidance in Topic 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation. ASU No. 2021-04 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. ASU 2021-04 will be adopted on January 1, 2022 and will not have a material impact to these financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses.” The standard, including subsequently issued amendments, requires a financial asset measured at amortized cost basis, such as accounts receivable and certain other financial assets, to be presented at the net amount expected to be collected based on relevant information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. This ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within those fiscal years, and requires the modified retrospective approach. Early adoption is permitted. Based on the composition of the Company’s trade receivables and other financial assets, current market conditions, and historical credit loss activity, the Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of this guidance on our financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases, and has subsequently issued several supplemental and/or clarifying ASU’s (collectively, “Topic 842”), which requires a dual approach for lease accounting under which a lessee would account for leases as finance leases or operating leases. Both finance leases and operating leases may result in the lessee recognizing a right of use asset and a corresponding lease liability. For finance leases, the lessee would recognize interest expense and amortization of the right-of-use asset, and for operating leases, the lessee would recognize lease expense on a straight-line basis. This ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within those fiscal years, and allows a modified retrospective approach. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of this guidance on our financial statements.
In October 2021, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers. Under ASU 2021-08, an acquirer must recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with Topic 606. The guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2022, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently in the process of evaluating the impact of this guidance on our financial statements.
Other accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption. The Company does not discuss recent pronouncements that are not anticipated to have an impact on or are unrelated to its financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef